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From the first introduction of the Arthurian legends into French literature they caught the popular favour, and stimulated writers to an unwonted activity for a period embracing a well-rounded century, beginning toward the middle of the twelfth century and ending before the close of the thirteenth. OF THE great cycles of mediaeval romance none was more popular throughout Europe than the Arthurian cycle.

WITH AN INTRODUCTION CONTAINING OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF THE LEGEND OF MERLIN. As to the authors of the various prose versions of the Merlin, nothing is known and pro- bably nothing ever will be known. The Malinogion, from the Llyfr Coeh o Hergest and other ancient Welsh Manuscripts, with an English Translation and Notes. The Literature of the Kymry ; being a critical Essay on the History of the Language and Literature of Wales. Nothing final can be established with regard to the development of the romance until we possess a critical text, not only of the Merlin, but of all the other prose romances of tne Arthurian cycle with which it is interwoven, and until a number of special researches have been made concerning the age of the manuscripts, the extent of the inter- polated passages, and the meaning of the allusions to other romances. I owe much to the Director of the Bibliotheque de Ste. Paul Meyer, Director of the Ecole des Chartes, who made several suggestions about the French MSS. And even then we may seriously question whether a thoroughly consistent history of this or of any of the other romances of the Arthurian cycle can ever be written. \ STUDIA IN / This book belongs to THE LIBRARY rf VICTORIA UNIVERSITY Toronto 5, Canada NOV 6 1940 THE BOOKSHELF L crltn Ot| istorg 0f giiig Arthur. Only two manuscripts of the Merlin 1 have been published, unless we include the early printed editions of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It is perhaps unnecessary to remark that without the aid of the researches of Francisque Michel, Paulin Paris, Gaston Paris, H. So much, too, remains yet to be done in the way of special investigation of the Arthurian romances, that I can at most regard this account as a mere passing contribution to the history of the Merlin legend. Oscar Kuhns, who read a portion of the proof, and trans- lated Professor Novati's note on Arthur's fight with the great cat of Lausanne; to Mr, E. Numerous delays, which need not be explained here, have hindered the appearance of the book until now. ccl-ccliv take account of later work on various matters connected with the Merlin legend.

The manuscripts are numerous and still unclassified as to age and generic relations. I have, therefore, attempted nothing more than to cite a few of the countless instances where French words have been transferred almost without change to the English translation. Ward, Alfred Nutt, and others, a considerable part of this outline could not have been written. in the British Museum, who discussed with me the earlier forms of the legend and read some of the proof ; to my colleague Professor Jj. Phillimore, who read the proofs of the chapter on the early forms of the legend, and supplied several valuable notes ; and most of all to Dr. I may add that the proofs of all the extracts from the French manuscripts have been read in Paris while I have been in America, so that the accuracy of the specimens is to be credited to the MS. The greater portion of the present investigation was com- pleted in 1892, and placed in tlie hands of the printers. We do not really know how much older any of the extant Welsh literature is than Geoffrey of Monmouth's Hutoria Regum Britanniae (113547), to say nothing of the ninth-century Nennius. Nutt well observes : " The study of Celtic tradition is only beginning to be placed upon a firm basis, and the stores of Celtic myth and legend are only beginning to be thrown open to the non- Celtic scholar." A little further on he adds that " as a whole Welsh literature is late, meagre, and has kept little that is archaic." 2 If this be true of Welsh literature as a whole, still more is it true of the portions available for our purpose. French versions of the prose romance were produced. So great an interest attaches to these two names that we learn 1 G. An initial difficulty appears in the chronology of the possible sources. In the French romances we find more abundant material, but we are left in almost hopeless confusion as to the exact order in which the several . LONDON : PUBLISHT FOR THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY, BY KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD. To the first period belongs the work of the Welsh bards and the pseudo- historic Latin chroniclers, Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth. Les Manuscrits fran Qois de la Bibliotheque du Roi. 1 In the history of the cycle we may distinguish with more or less accuracy three periods 2 a period of preparation, a period of production, a period of translation and imitation. Nennii Historia Britonum ad fidem codicum Manuscriptorum recensuit Josephus Stevenson.

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